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By Out-of-Africa, I mean here the origin of anatomically modern humans, as opposed to the earlier origin of the genus Homo or the later origin of behaviorally fully modern humans. Two main pieces of evidence supported the conventional OOA theory: The observation that modern Eurasians possess a subset of the genetic variation of modern Africans. The greater antiquity of AMH humans in the African rather than the Eurasian palaeoanthropological record. Both these observations are in crisis. The oldest African fossil AMH is in North Africa Morocco, Jebel Irhoud ; modern genetic variation does not single out this region as a potential source of modern humans. In short, modern genetic variation has nothing to say about where AMH originated. Eurasians can no longer be seen as a subset of Africans, given that they possess genetic variation from Denisovans, a layer of ancestry earlier than all extant AMH. While it is still true that most Eurasian genetic material is a subset of that of modern Africans, it is also true that the deepest known lineage of humans is the Denisovan-Sima de los huesos, with no evidence for any deeper African lineage.

Biological anthropology

Human Evolution Human evolution is the lengthy process of change by which people originated from apelike ancestors starting nearly five million years ago. The modern scientific study of human evolution is called paleoanthropology. A subfield of anthropology, this discipline searches for the roots of human physical traits, culture, and behavior. It attempts to answer questions: What makes us human? When and why did we begin to walk upright?

Tree-ring dating; a form of absolute dating. The American Anthropological Association’s Code of Ethics is Designed to ensure that anthropologists are aware of their obligations to the field of anthropology, to host communities that allow them to conduct their research, and to society in general.

In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries physicalism emerged as a major unifying feature of the philosophy of science as physics provides fundamental explanations for every observed natural phenomenon. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms of other sciences, while opening to new research areas in mathematics and philosophy. Chemistry and Outline of chemistry Chemistry the etymology of the word has been much disputed [10] is the science of matter and the changes it undergoes.

The science of matter is also addressed by physics , but while physics takes a more general and fundamental approach, chemistry is more specialized, being concerned by the composition, behavior or reaction , structure, and properties of matter , as well as the changes it undergoes during chemical reactions. Many more specialized disciplines have emerged in recent years, e. Earth science and Outline of earth science Earth science also known as geoscience, the geosciences or the Earth sciences is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth.

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Various short-lived organizations of anthropologists had already been formed. Its members were primarily anti-slavery activists. Meanwhile, the Ethnological Society of New York, currently the American Ethnological Society , was founded on its model in , as well as the Ethnological Society of London in , a break-away group of the Aborigines’ Protection Society.

The Master of Science in Project Management (MSPM) is designed for working professionals who want to advance their technical skills while learning the most up-to .

Only hydrogen , helium , oxygen , neon , and nitrogen are atomically more abundant in the cosmos than carbon. In the crust of Earth, elemental carbon is a minor component. However, carbon compounds i. Coral and the shells of oysters and clams are primarily calcium carbonate. Carbon is widely distributed as coal and in the organic compounds that constitute petroleum , natural gas , and all plant and animal tissue. A natural sequence of chemical reactions called the carbon cycle —involving conversion of atmospheric carbon dioxide to carbohydrates by photosynthesis in plants, the consumption of these carbohydrates by animals and oxidation of them through metabolism to produce carbon dioxide and other products, and the return of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere —is one of the most important of all biological processes.

Thus, together with sulfur , iron , tin , lead , copper , mercury , silver , and gold , carbon was one of the small group of elements well known in the ancient world. Modern carbon chemistry dates from the development of coals , petroleum , and natural gas as fuels and from the elucidation of synthetic organic chemistry, both substantially developed since the s. Mineral Information Institute Elemental carbon exists in several forms, each of which has its own physical characteristics.

Two of its well-defined forms, diamond and graphite , are crystalline in structure, but they differ in physical properties because the arrangements of the atoms in their structures are dissimilar. A third form, called fullerene , consists of a variety of molecules composed entirely of carbon. A fourth form, called Q-carbon, is crystalline and magnetic.

Anthropology

General overview The evidence for evolution Darwin and other 19th-century biologists found compelling evidence for biological evolution in the comparative study of living organisms, in their geographic distribution, and in the fossil remains of extinct organisms. The amount of information about evolutionary history stored in the DNA and proteins of living things is virtually unlimited; scientists can reconstruct any detail of the evolutionary history of life by investing sufficient time and laboratory resources.

Darwin, CharlesOverview of Charles Darwin’s life, with a focus on his work involving evolution. The following sections identify the most productive of these sources and illustrate the types of information they have provided. The fossil record Paleontologists have recovered and studied the fossil remains of many thousands of organisms that lived in the past.

Chapter 2: Miller-Urey experiment. Prebiotic Oxygen. A key question in origin-of-life research is the oxidation state of the prebiotic atmosphere (the current best guess is that the origin of life occurred somewhere around bya (billion years ago)).

Chapter 10 Analysis of genetic data from populations Genetic diversity within populations Genetic distances between populations Displaying genetic distance data: Trees Displaying genetic data: Multidimensional scaling, principal components, and correspondence analysis Chapter 11 Analysis of genetic data from individuals Genetic distances for DNA sequences Trees for DNA sequences Rooting trees Assessing the confidence of a tree Network analyses Genome-wide data: Unsupervised analyses Chapter 12 Inferences about demographic history Dating events Population size and population size change Migration and admixture Putting it all together Chapter 13 Our closest living relatives Resolving the trichotomy Ape genetics and genomics Chapter 14 The origins of our species Human origins: The fossil record Models for human origins The genetic evidence: Y chromosome The genetic evidence: Degradation Properties of ancient DNA: Damage Properties of ancient DNA: Archaic humans Other uses for ancient DNA Chapter 16 Dispersal and migration Out of Africa—how many times, when, and which way did they go?

The colonization of the Americas Into even more remote lands:

Biological Anthropology Labs

Selected article Schematic illustration of maternal mtDNA gene-flow in and out of Beringia, from 25, years ago to present. The genetic pattern indicates Indigenous Amerindians experienced two very distinctive genetic episodes; first with the initial peopling of the Americas , and secondly with European colonization of the Americas.

The former is the determinant factor for the number of gene lineages, zygosity mutations and founding haplotypes present in today’s Indigenous Amerindian populations.

Book of Mormon Problems. LDS Church members are taught that the Book of Mormon (BOM) is scripture, as well as a true record of the inhabitants of the Americas from about BC to AD.

General overview The evidence for evolution Darwin and other 19th-century biologists found compelling evidence for biological evolution in the comparative study of living organisms, in their geographic distribution, and in the fossil remains of extinct organisms. The amount of information about evolutionary history stored in the DNA and proteins of living things is virtually unlimited; scientists can reconstruct any detail of the evolutionary history of life by investing sufficient time and laboratory resources.

Darwin, CharlesOverview of Charles Darwin’s life, with a focus on his work involving evolution. The following sections identify the most productive of these sources and illustrate the types of information they have provided. The fossil record Paleontologists have recovered and studied the fossil remains of many thousands of organisms that lived in the past.

This fossil record shows that many kinds of extinct organisms were very different in form from any now living. It also shows successions of organisms through time see faunal succession, law of ; geochronology: Determining the relationships of fossils with rock strata , manifesting their transition from one form to another. When an organism dies, it is usually destroyed by other forms of life and by weathering processes.

On rare occasions some body parts—particularly hard ones such as shells, teeth, or bones—are preserved by being buried in mud or protected in some other way from predators and weather. Eventually, they may become petrified and preserved indefinitely with the rocks in which they are embedded.

The Beer Archaeologist

This image shows phylogenetic network of 39 prehistoric mitochondrial genomes sorted into two groupings — Early Neolithic, left, and Mid-to-Late Neolithic, right. Node colors represent archaeological cultures. LBK — Linear Pottery Culture Paul Brotherton et al The research reveals a dramatic series of events including major migrations from both Western Europe and Eurasia, and signs of an unexplained genetic turnover about 4, , years ago.

Molecular anthropology’s wiki: Molecular anthropology is a field of anthropology in which molecular analysis is used to determine evolutionary links between ancient and modern human populations, as well as between contemporary species. Generally, comparisons are made betw.

Oaks, Quorum of the 12 Apostles. Critics’ Arguments Latter-day Saints are repeatedly encouraged to rely on a witness of the spirit i. Holy Ghost to personally authenticate the truthfulness of the origins and content of the Book of Mormon. Given constant encouragement from general and local leaders of reliance on supernatural manifestations a testimony over testable claims, it is not surprising that many faithful Latter-Day Saints seem unfazed by empirical evidence or the lack of it contradicting Book of Mormon claims, whether the research is conducted by Mormon or non-Mormon archaeologists and historians.

Of even greater concern is that many faithful LDS members, by virtue of the admonition of their leaders mentioned above , are not even aware of the perplexing problems contained in the Book of Mormon text. As a result, they are usually unable to effectively dialogue with critics without resorting to faith-based claims in a testimony which carry no authoritative weight for the many dedicated experts in the fields of archaeology, history, linguistics, genetics, etc.

This page details some problems that arise by accepting the Church-sanctioned teachings of the origin and content of the BOM as well as responses to those problems from the LDS Church, apologists and devout members. Anachronisms An anachronism is when writing contains something from a future time period which couldn’t realistically be in the time period they’ve written it into. Count the clock,” with Cassius replying, “The clock has stricken three.

Shakespeare took something familiar to him, a clock that strikes the hours, and placed it in his story before such clocks existed. Because the play is fictional, it is seen as simply an error on Shakespeare’s part.

Graduate School Programs

Cultural anthropology Cultural anthropology is that major division of anthropology that explains culture in its many aspects. It is anchored in the collection, analysis, and explanation or interpretation of the primary data of extended ethnographic field research. This discipline , both in America and in Europe, has long cast a wide net and includes various approaches.

It has produced such collateral approaches as culture-and-personality studies , culture history, cultural ecology, cultural materialism, ethnohistory, and historical anthropology. These subdisciplines variously exploit methods from the sciences and the humanities.

An Introduction to Molecular Anthropology is an invaluable resource for students studying human evolution, biological anthropology, or molecular anthropology, as well as a reference for anthropologists and anyone else interested in the genetic history of humans.

And what about the dried doum-palm fruit, which has been giving off a worrisome fungusy scent ever since it was dropped in a brandy snifter of hot water and sampled as a tea? At last, Patrick McGovern, a year-old archaeologist, wanders into the little pub, an oddity among the hip young brewers in their sweat shirts and flannel. Proper to the point of primness, the University of Pennsylvania adjunct professor sports a crisp polo shirt, pressed khakis and well-tended loafers; his wire spectacles peek out from a blizzard of white hair and beard.

But Calagione, grinning broadly, greets the dignified visitor like a treasured drinking buddy. Which, in a sense, he is. The truest alcohol enthusiasts will try almost anything to conjure the libations of old. Other guidelines came from the even more ancient Wadi Kubbaniya, an 18, year-old site in Upper Egypt where starch-dusted stones, probably used for grinding sorghum or bulrush, were found with the remains of doum-palm fruit and chamomile.

The brewers also went so far as to harvest a local yeast, which might be descended from ancient varieties many commercial beers are made with manufactured cultures.

Branches of science

The first A form of walking characterized by an erect stance in which the rear legs are utilized for movement. Each genu can be comprised of one or more species. Australopithecus , which appeared in the fossil record from about 4. A genus of extinct hominids, characterized by being the earliest bipedal primate up to 3.

Biological anthropology, also known as physical anthropology, is a scientific discipline concerned with the biological and behavioral aspects of human beings, their related non-human primates and their extinct hominin ancestors. It is a subfield of anthropology that provides a biological perspective to the systematic study of human beings.

You have to compare at least a few dozen base pairs before you can see the uncanny way that organisms in the same genus match up far better than organisms in different classes for example. Here, for example, is an alignment of some cytochrome C amino acid sequences from various organisms for discussion see here. If Wells were interested in giving his readers a useful graphic, he could have easily found something like this, published in a article of the Journal of Molecular Evolution: The following example comes from the mitochondrial DNA sequence data from Horai et al.

See that page, notes for a course on evolution at Montana State, for further discussion. A discussion of the sequence analysis and the mathematics of nested phylogenies is here: Even when different molecules can be combined to give a single tree, the result is often bizarre: A study using 88 protein sequences grouped rabbits with primates instead of rodents; a analysis of 13 genes in 19 animal species placed sea urchins among the chordates; and another study based on 12 proteins put cows closer to whales than to horses.

Molecular Clocks and phylogeny video lecture